Complete Scope of Supply

Complete solution including compressors, oil removal systems, vacuum cold box with integral turboexpanders, heat exchangers, storage tanks, cryogenic distribution system and trailer loading system. Integral nitrogen re-liquefaction is offered as an option. All major components are built by Chart.


Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

  • A warm, pure hydrogen feed stream is compressed (if necessary) to achieve the liquefier high pressure stream design pressure
  • Pure, high pressure hydrogen feed stream enters a cold box where it is cooled by liquid nitrogen and a recycle circuit that produces refrigeration from a compressed helium or hydrogen stream by expanding it in one or more turboexpanders
  • Refrigerated hydrogen feed stream flows across a Joule-Thomson valve where it is expanded to produce a two-phase hydrogen stream
  • 2-phase stream flows into a storage tank where the liquid and vapor are separated
  • Liquid remains in the storage tank and the cold vapor is returned to the cold box where it is used to cool the hydrogen feed stream

hydrogen liquefaction cold box

3D Models Showing 10 Tons/Day Hydrogen Liquefier Vacuum Cold Box – 10 ft Diameter x 40 ft High – 300 K to 20 K

A complete liquefaction system typically includes flash, recycle and feed (where applicable) compressors, oil removal systems (where applicable), a vacuum cold box containing heat exchangers, adsorbers, expanders, valves & instrument, product storage & distribution and control & analytical systems.

The net refrigeration requirements for a liquefier are much higher than for a refrigerator of comparable recycle flow. Therefore, a liquefier will have higher expander power and will often include more expanders to improve process efficiency. Use of an external refrigerant is quite common in liquefier applications since it will reduce the recycle flow requirements up to 75%.

Cryo Technologies

The combination of Chart and Cryo Technologies offers the market a unique one-stop shop for customers who want to liquefy, store, distribute and market the hydrogen molecule, regardless of plant capacity.

Optimized Solution

Chart's hydrogen liquefaction processes use liquid nitrogen pre-cooling, helium or hydrogen refrigeration cycles and rotating equipment, all designed and selected to offer our customers the optimum balance between CAPEX and OPEX.

Minimized Cost, Risk & Schedule

Proven process technologies, high quality, custom engineered and commercially available components, expert fabrication and maximized shop packaging unite to reduce cost, schedule, and risk.

Customization Available

To meet each customer’s specific needs, customization options include choice of capacity, choice of refrigeration cycle, choice of compression, optional front-end purification, optional nitrogen re-liquefaction, and unlimited storage and trailer loading options.


Cooler Together

Chart acquisitions Cryo Technologies and Fronti Fabrications have been working together for more than 30 years utilizing their deep cryogenic expertise to create solutions for purifying and liquefying hydrogen and helium. Together with our brazed aluminum heat exchangers, cold boxes and cryogenic storage tanks, Chart has the unique advantage of being able to fully design engineer, build and assemble complete plants in house.


Total Approach to Hydrogen Liquefaction

Chart only designs and manufactures the critical equipment for the hydrogen supply chain. We do not produce the molecule nor own/operate our equipment, so there is never a conflict of interest with our customers.

  • In-house manufacturing of major liquefaction components including specialty brazed aluminum heat exchangers, cold boxes (vacuum and perlite), turboexpanders, liquid hydrogen storage tanks, vacuum jacketed pipework and air cooled heat exchangers
  • Major manufacturing is located in the US
  • Proven experience of liquefaction trains from 5 to >30 TPD
  • Options for pre-cooling and hydrogen or helium refrigeration enable Chart to optimize CAPEX, OPEX and operational flexibility (turndown) depending on site conditions, power costs and other factors
  • Experience and expertise regarding the unique dynamic behavior of storage tanks and transport containers, which we account for in our designs ensuring a Chart system is stable and efficient across a wide range of cold end conditions

Howden Compression

Compression is one of the main components in the hydrogen liquefaction processes, and selecting the right compression solution is a key step in improving the feasibility of these applications

Howden, with more than a century of hydrogen and gas applications experience and a product range that covers every major technology, can advise on, design and supply the right safe, reliable and cost-effective compressor solution for virtually any situation.

compressors for hydrogen liquefaction


Technical Library

View and download literature

Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchangers

Cryo Technologies Summary

HLH2 Liquid Hydrogen Vehicle Fueling Systems

Chart brings solution expertise to Liquid Hydrogen (HLH2) on-board fueling systems.

Hydrogen Liquefiers

Attaqa Interview

Chart Global Director speaks with Attaqa about a promising future for green hydrogen in the Arab region.

Exploring Nexus of Clean

Gas Compression Magazine explores Chart’s integrated value chain investments made to position the company at the forefront of the clean energy transition through Nexus of Clean™.

Hydrogen Takes Centre Stage

Discussion on the factors involved in the transition to storing hydrogen as an industrial fuel with contributions from Chart. First published in Tank Storage magazine.

The Energy Update-Q3, 2022

Newsletter bringing you the latest developments in Chart's clean energy solutions.

Unveiling the Hydrogen Industry's Evolution

First published in H2 View

WB Hydrogen Report 2022

Hydrogen is set to play a key role in decarbonization and its demand is on the rise. Scaling up requires major deployment of the necessary equipment, creating demand for key materials. Read the report to understand the impacts of this increased demand. Published by World Hydrogen Council.

Connect With a Specialist

To connect with a liquefaction specialist call direct or click the 'Contact Us' button, complete a short form and we'll be in touch.

Cryo Technologies Main Office  +1 610 530 7288