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Complete Scope of Supply

We offer a complete solution including compressors, oil removal systems, vacuum cold box with integral turboexpanders, storage tanks, cryogenic distribution system and trailer loading system. Integral nitrogen re-liquefaction is offered as an option.


Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

A warm, pure hydrogen feed stream is compressed (if necessary) to achieve the liquefier high pressure stream design pressure.  The pure, high pressure hydrogen feed stream enters a cold box where it is cooled by liquid nitrogen and a recycle circuit that produces refrigeration from a compressed helium or hydrogen stream by expanding it in one or more turboexpanders.  The refrigerated hydrogen feed stream then flows across a Joule-Thomson valve where it is expanded to produce a two-phase hydrogen stream.  The two-phase stream flows into a storage tank where the liquid and vapor are separated.  The liquid remains in the storage tank and the cold vapor is returned to the cold box where it is used to cool the hydrogen feed stream.  A complete liquefaction system typically includes flash, recycle and feed (where applicable) compressors, oil removal systems (where applicable), a vacuum cold box containing heat exchangers, adsorbers, expanders, valves & instrument, product storage & distribution and control & analytical systems.

The net refrigeration requirements for a liquefier are much higher than for a refrigerator of comparable recycle flow. Therefore, a liquefier will have higher expander power and will often include more expanders to improve process efficiency. Use of an external refrigerant is quite common in liquefier applications since it will reduce the recycle flow requirements up to 75%.

Cryo Technologies designs and builds state of the art turboexpander cycles to liquefy hydrogen using either helium or hydrogen as a working fluid, with or without liquid nitrogen precooling. All cryogenic equipment is housed in a vacuum cold box. Plant sizes range from 5 to 30 metric tons and beyond.

We are familiar with the unique dynamic behavior of storage tanks and transport containers and account for this in our designs so that our systems are stable and efficient across a wide range of cold end conditions.

hydrogen liquefier cold box

3D Models Showing 10 Tons/Day Hydrogen Liquefier Vacuum Cold Box – 10 ft Diameter x 40 ft High – 300 K to 20 K

Cryo Technologies

The combination of Chart and Cryo Technologies offers the market a unique one-stop shop for customers who want to liquefy, store, distribute and market the hydrogen molecule, regardless of plant capacity.

Optimized Solution

Chart's hydrogen liquefaction processes use liquid nitrogen pre-cooling, helium or hydrogen refrigeration cycles and rotating equipment, all designed and selected to offer our customers the optimum balance between CAPEX and OPEX.

Minimized Cost, Risk & Schedule

Proven process technologies, high quality, custom engineered and commercially available components, expert fabrication and maximized shop packaging unite to reduce cost, schedule, and risk.

Customization Available

To meet each customer’s specific needs, customization options include choice of capacity, choice of refrigeration cycle, choice of compression, optional front-end purification, optional nitrogen re-liquefaction, and unlimited storage and trailer loading options.


Fronti Fabrications

With >20 years specialty cryogenic engineering and welding expertise, the acquisition of Fronti brings another cryogenic industry partner into the Chart portfolio, expands our cold box manufacturing capability and capacity, including hydrogen and helium liquefiers and creates the foundation for our mid-Atlantic flexible manufacturing location.


Technical Library

View and download literature

Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchangers

Cryo Technologies Summary

Hydrogen Liquefiers

Exploring Nexus of Clean

Gas Compression Magazine explores Chart’s integrated value chain investments made to position the company at the forefront of the clean energy transition through Nexus of Clean™.

Connect With Cryo Technologies

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Cryo Technologies Main Office  +1 610 530 7288